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Sir Alexander George Montagu Cadogan was a British civil servant. He was Permanent Under-Secretary for Foreign Affairs from 1938 to 1946. Cadogan was the eighth son and youngest child of George Cadogan, 5th Earl Cadogan, and his first wife Lady Beatrix Jane Craven, and was educated at Eton and Balliol College, Oxford. He served in the Diplomatic Service from 1908 to 1950 and was Permanent Under-Secretary at the Foreign Office from 1938 to 1946, representative to the Dumbarton Oaks Conference in 1944, Britain's representative to the United Nations from 1946 to 1950. He was admitted to the Privy Council in 1946 and was later Chairman of Board of Governors of the BBC from 1952 to 1957. Cadogan's long tenure of the Permanent Secretary's office makes him one of the central figures of British policy before and during the Second World War. His diaries are a source of great value and give a sharp sense of the man and his life. Like most senior officials at the Foreign Office he was bitterly critical of the appeasement policies of the 1930's, whilst accepting that until British rearmament was better advanced, there were few other options. In particular he stressed that without an American commitment to joint defence against Japan, Britain would be torn between the eastern and western spheres. Conflict with Germany would automatically expose Britain's Asian Empire to Japanese aggression. At the end of the war Cadogan was appointed Britain's first Ambassador to the UN. Cadogan married Lady Theodosia Louisa, daughter of Archibald Acheson, 4th Earl of Gosford, in 1912. They had one son and three daughters. He died in July 1968, aged 83.